Queen of distance: Johnson leads Lady Lakers to track state championship

HENDERSON, Nev. — North Tahoe Britta Johnson led the Lakers to a track and field state championship last weekend, claiming gold in three events and silver in another.

Johnson was spectacular at last weekend’s Nevada Interscholastic Activities Association Class 2A State Boys and Girls’ Track and Field Championships in Henderson with a sweep of the distance events, a second in the 800 meters, and a first in the 4×800 meter relay.

Johnson has ruled over distance running this year, adding the 1,600 meters and 3,200 meters championships to the 5,000-meter state title she won last fall in cross-country.

Johnson set a personal record in the 1,600 meters behind a dominant showing. The North Tahoe freshman ran to a time of 5 minutes, 23.95 seconds to top the field of runners by nearly eight seconds.

Johnson also led a Lakes sweep of the podium in the 3,200 meters, cruising to a more than 35 second victory with a time of 12:06.62. Freshman sister Niki Johnson was second in the race with a time of 12:40.01, followed by freshman Annika Johnston in third place with a personal-record time of 13:01.41, and junior Marion Snideman in sixth place with a time of 14:01.04.

Britta Johnson also set a personal record in the 800 meters with a time of 2:27.31 to finish in second place. She claimed her third gold medal of the meet by teaming with junior Kalena Steves, Niki Johnson, and sophomore Alexis Hallenberg to win the 4×800 meter relay with a time of 10:13.08.

Hallenberg also set a personal record in the 800 meters with a time of 2:27.34 to take third place. Steves was fourth in the event with a personal-record time 2:32.46 to finish in fourth, Niki Johnson took fifth place in the race with a personal-record time of 2:36.31.

Niki Johnson added to her medal haul with a personal record in the 1,600 meters with a time of 5:35.11 to take third place. Steves was fourth in the event with a personal-record time of 5:43.01, followed by Johnston in fifth place with a personal-record time of 5:47.06.

Junior Kaya Siig claimed bronze in pole vault, clearing 7 feet, 6.00 inches. Siig also took seventh in the 400 meters with a time of 1:04.64.

Junior Libby Webb leapt to a season-best mark of 29 feet, 10.00 inches in triple jump to take fourth place. Webb also cleared 4 feet, 6.00 inches in high jump to take fifth place.

Sophomore Sienna Clark set a personal record in the 200 meters with a time of 27.55 to take fifth place. Clark was also fifth in the 100 meters with a time of 13.64.

The Lakers rolled to the team state title by 54.5 points with a high score of 131.5 points.

Senior Skyler Sakrison led the Lakers boys’ team with a runner-up finish in triple jump with a mark of 40 feet, 5.50 inches. Sakrison also took eighth in the 100-meter hurdles with a time of 22.43.

Freshman Graham Snideman set a personal record in the 3,200 meters with a time of 10:46.52 to finish in third place. Snideman also finished eighth in the 800 meters with a time of 2:19.65.

Snideman, sophomore Ryder Hallenberg, sophomore Asher Dambach, and junior Isaac Pacheco-Martinez finished fourth in the 4×800 meter relay with a time of 9:09.48.

Pacheco-Martinez also took fourth in the 3,200 meters, setting a personal record in the event with a time of 10:49.86, and was seventh in the 1,600 meters with a time of 5:02.26.

Senior Jacob Lutz set a personal record in long jump with a leap of 20 feet, 0.50 inches to take fourth place. Lutz also finished high jump in eighth after clearing 5 feet, 6.00 inches, and eighth in the 100 meters with a time of 11.92.

Senior Daniel Joslin took sixth in shot put with a throw of 38 feet, 11.75 inches, and was sixth in discus with a throw of 120 feet, 4 inches. Hallenberg set a personal record in the 300-meter hurdles to finish in eighth place with a time of 46.19.

The North Tahoe boys’ team finished in eighth place with 45 points. Lake Mead Christian Academy won the state championship with a high score of 123 points.

Novato’s Indian Valley proves to be a herpetological treasure trove

With warmer weather, my herpetological expectations rise. Every hike has me on the lookout for the sunning snake and darting lizard, so the largely shady hike from Indian Valley trailhead in Novato was not where I expected to see either. It’s always a great day when nature surprises you with herps.

Photo by Emily Willingham) A coastal garter snake hunts for food at Indian Valley in Novato.
Photo by Emily Willingham

A coastal garter snake hunts for food at Indian Valley in Novato.

As with most hiking areas in Marin, the Indian Valley open space preserve features a network of trails that offer dozens of possible combinations for loop, figure-eight, and there-and-back routes. For our hike on a warm Monday afternoon, we opted to make a loop that strings together the Indian Valley, Ad and Gloria Schwindt, Kent Harth Waterfall and Pacheco Pond trails. Trail descriptions promised shade and a still-trickling waterfall over the course of a short 3.5 miles of easy-moderate terrain.

Just at the Indian Valley trailhead is a small pond that comes alive with croaking frogs during spring and summer sunsets. As many times as I’ve been privileged to witness the chorus, I’d never seen the adult amphibians themselves, only their tadpoles, which densely populate the ponds right now. Our Monday hike changed that, but not before a pair of snake encounters that left us thrilled.

This hiking route starts with a sharp right just past the Indian Valley trailhead onto the Ad and Gloria Schwindt trail, named after mid-20th-century owners of a small farm in West Novato. After a brief sunlit stretch, the route winds under a canopy of bay and oak and curves around to intersect again with Indian Valley Trail. There is a stable and neighborhood visible through the trees just past this turn, and the spacious trail runs alongside them for a bit.

Bypassing a couple of tempting turnoffs to other routes we’ve done before, we finally took a right onto the Kent Harth Waterfall Trail. This path runs along a creek still weakly flowing from all of the winter and spring rains. At one point, the trail forks around a rocky cropping. Taking the right fork leads right to the waterfall, while keeping left will land you just above the falls. “Falls” is probably not quite accurate now that things are drying up, but there was still a trickle flowing down the rocks, enough to convey the idea. It’s a beautiful, shady spot with pools full of tadpoles. These distracting amphibian babies were probably the reason that we at first overlooked the beautiful coastal garter snake lurking in the water, trying to eat them.

After we communed with the snake for a bit and had the good fortune to watch it on the hunt, we continued on a few feet only to encounter a good-sized Pacific gopher snake snagging some rays just where sunlight splashed onto the path. It placidly tolerated our paparazzi behavior as we snapped pictures while trying hard not to disturb it.

Buzzing on this good fortune, we continued on the Waterfall route as it zigzagged upward on the only real climb of the hike. At the top, we could see vistas of the Bel Marin keys and hints of Pacheco pond through the trees as we began our descent. Skirting the pond, we caught sight of yet more herps, in this case a pair of small pond turtles sunning themselves, taking advantage of the ongoing restoration project at Pacheco.

From here, the Pacheco Pond Trail leads straight downhill back to the Indian Valley Trailhead, where our final herp sighting of the day capped a fabulous outing: two tiny frogs, possibly Sierran tree frogs, which quickly decamped into the grass before we could get out our cell phones.  It was the perfect hoppy ending to the day.

Getting there: Take the Ignacio Valley exit from 101 and cruise down Ignacio Valley Road until it ends in the College of Marin Indian Valley Campus. Keep straight through the campus until you arrive at the parking lot next to the ball fields. Parking here is $4, payable at the pay station. The trailhead is behind the fields. Immediately at the start, swing right onto the Ad and Gloria Schwindt Trail. From there, merge onto Indian Valley Trail again, which loops back toward the trailhead. Take the clearly signed Kent Harth Waterfall Trail right and follow it to where it merges with the Pacheco Pond Trail skirting the eponymous pond, which takes you back to the Indian Valley trailhead. Dogs are allowed on leash on trails and under voice command on fire roads. There are toilets and water fountains at the ball fields.

Emily Willingham is a Marin science journalist, book author and biologist. You can find her on Bluesky @ejwillingham or Instagram at emily.willingham.phd.

Playbook: Inside the brewing debt limit deal – POLITICO

With help from Eli Okun and Garrett Ross

With less than a week before a possible June 1 federal default, negotiators appear to be homing in on a deal to raise the debt ceiling and avert an economic catastrophe.
| Stefani Reynolds /AFP via Getty Images


STAT OF THE DAY — As the X-date approaches, the U.S. Treasury’s cash balance has now dipped below $49.5 billion. That means “there are 24 individuals on the Bloomberg Billionaires list who have more money than the Treasury does right now,” per Bloomberg’s Kailey Leinz.

MUST-READ — “Are The Anti-Trump GOP Forces Starting to Implode?” by Jonathan Martin: “Will this go down as the week that the grand plan to deny DONALD TRUMP the nomination fell apart?” … More from JMart on today’s episode of Playbook Deep DiveListen to it on Apple Podcasts or Spotify

A quote from Jonathan Martin is pictured.

New Window

RON DeSWAMPIS — NBC’s Matt Dixon and Jonathan Allen broke a killer story late last night: “Officials who work for Gov. RON DeSANTIS’ administration — not his campaign — have been sending text messages to Florida lobbyists soliciting political contributions for DeSantis’ presidential bid, a breach of traditional norms that has raised ethical and legal questions and left many here in the state capital shocked.”

Said one Florida lobbyist: “The bottom line is that the administration appears to be keeping tabs on who is giving, and are doing it using state staff. … You are in a prisoner’s dilemma. They are going to remain in power. We all understand that.”

Said another: “It is state employees leveraging their official position to ask people whose livelihood[s] depend on access to state government for money.”

A DEBT CEILING DEAL BEGINS TO TAKE SHAPE — With less than a week before a possible June 1 federal default, negotiators appear to be homing in on a deal to raise the debt ceiling and avert an economic catastrophe.

The two sides have all but finalized the spending portion of discussions, a source familiar with the talks told Playbook late last night. And as one Republican negotiator said recently, once those caps get locked in, the rest of the deal should fall into place fairly quickly.

A note of caution: As the old Washington adage goes, nothing is agreed to until everything is agreed to. Talks could blow up as conservatives and progressives balk at details that are starting to leak out. Even absent a meltdown, enough sticking points remain to drag negotiations on through the weekend.

But for once, we actually believe the White House and Republican leaders when they say there’s been real progress.

Here’s what we know this morning:

ON SPENDING CAPS: The two sides appear to be in agreement on raising the debt ceiling for two years (through the 2024 election) and essentially capping discretionary spending over that time frame for everything except the Pentagon and veterans programs.

Where Republicans relented: GOP negotiators initially demanded that Democrats reduce spending on non-defense programs to FY 2022 levels. But they’ve now agreed to pare back those expectations and meet the White House closer to (but below) its own offer of freezing spending at FY 2023 levels.

Where Democrats relented: Because the deal will reduce non-defense discretionary spending below the FY 2023 level, Republicans can say that they secured spending cuts. But the inchoate agreement will also include accounting maneuvers to allow Democrats to shift funds from other places, meaning that the cuts are almost a wash. More details from NYT’s Jim Tankersley and Catie Edmondson

Defense spending, meanwhile, will see a small increase, matching President JOE BIDEN’s proposed 2024 budget in yet another concession from Republicans who were demanding a large influx of cash for the Pentagon. More from Roxana Tiron and Jennifer Jacobs at Bloomberg

ON THE IRS CLAWBACKS: The still-being-ironed-out framework would also claw back $10 billion of Democrats’ $80 billion IRS funding infusion, a nod to GOP demands to rescind that money altogether. Part of that $10 billion, however, will be moved to other discretionary programs, helping Democrats avoid the steeper non-discretionary cuts demanded by the right. We’re told part of this matter is still under discussion; WaPo has more deets.

Happy Friday. Thanks for reading Playbook. Drop us a line: Rachael Bade, Eugene Daniels, Ryan Lizza.

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THE STEPBACK — Progress on the spending caps and the IRS portion of talks comes days after negotiators appeared to be finalizing an agreement to recoup unspent pandemic funds. At present, it’s unclear if that Covid money will be saved altogether or merely moved around, as with the IRS funding reduction.

There are two major unresolved issues:

1. A stalemate on work requirements. With House Democrats resisting Biden’s apparent willingness to beef up work requirements for certain social programs, the issue remains at an impasse. This is a must-have for Republicans. But with the GOP unwilling to consider something big in exchange (like closing tax loopholes for the wealthy and corporations), Democrats aren’t feeling a need to offer such a major concession — at least not yet.

2. The process of permitting reform. While both parties agree in theory that they want to include a permitting reform agreement in the deal, we’re told that the logistics of putting together such a complicated proposal by June 1 is weighing on negotiators.

The premise sounds simple enough: Democrats want to make it easier to build electricity lines and approve solar and wind energy projects; Republicans want to make it easier to drill oil — so both sides could just agree to give each other what they want.

But writing the legislation on this abbreviated timeline is difficult. One possibility: Both parties could commit to a framework and make a gentleman’s agreement to pass legislation at a later date. But some people close to talks still hold out hope legislation could be included in the debt ceiling package.

A few dynamics to keep an eye on:

1. Unhappy conservatives. As reported in Playbook PM yesterday, conservatives are already starting to revolt over the yet-to-be-finalized agreement, seething that they don’t like what they’re hearing. In a letter yesterday, members of the House Freedom Caucus urged Speaker KEVIN McCARTHY to “hold the line” and push for additional GOP priorities. Meanwhile in the Senate, MIKE LEE (R-Utah) vowed to do everything in his power to hold up passage of a deal he doesn’t like.

It didn’t get a lot of attention yesterday, but CNN’s story about MARK MEADOWS advising the Freedom Caucus as part of debt ceiling talks is worth a read. The former North Carolina Republican congressman and Trump chief of staff is a longtime McCarthy foe, and is infamous on the Hill for making ex-speakers PAUL RYAN and JOHN BOEHNER miserable. His meddling will almost surely cause problems for GOP leadership.

Watch this space closely. The more Republicans peel away from McCarthy, the more the speaker will need to rely on Democratic votes to get anything passed in the lower chamber. That could potentially mean a more watered-down bill than the agreement they’re trying to finalize now.

2. Unhappy Democrats. As we reported in Playbook yesterday, Biden’s own party continues to grumble that the White House is losing the messaging war. And House Dems are especially peeved that Biden is planning to leave Washington for the weekend. “Please tell me that’s not true,” one anonymous Dem lawmaker told our colleagues. “You’re going to see a caucus that’s so pissed if he’s stupid enough to do that.”

Meanwhile, McCarthy tweeted last night that he’s “staying in DC to fight for an agreement that’s worthy of the American people — for as long as it takes.” (Not a great side-by-side for the White House.)

Then there’s the discontent over the contents of a deal, which is prompting some surprising Democrats to warn that their votes for a deal are far from assured, according to CNN. Late last night, Rep. JARED GOLDEN (D-Maine) — the kind of moderate Democrat whose vote Biden will ultimately need — told our colleague Adam Cancryn that he remains noncommittal on backing any compromise.

Golden’s problem? The IRS rescissions, which he called “shockingly bad from a policy perspective” and would hurt the administration’s effort to crack down on tax cheats.

“They can’t count on me just because they think that’s what a Blue Dog is,” he said. “I’ve never been afraid to take tough votes, in either direction.”

3. A mischievous Trump. The former president has been cheering Republicans to embrace a default if they don’t get everything they want.

Yet that’s exactly where things stand: The tentative deal is going to look nothing like the GOP debt limit bill that passed the House a few weeks ago. Barring major changes, Republicans will have allowed Democrats to essentially continue spending at the same level for two years while raising the debt ceiling — a far cry from capping spending for a decade like they proposed.

So how will Trump react? It’s hard to tell. On the one hand, he’s never been a fiscal conservative. On the other, he loves to please the base. Should he blast the deal, swaths of Republicans will have a hard time voting for an agreement. If he blesses it, GOP leadership can keep defections to a minimum.

McCarthy appears to be aware of this wild card. Yesterday, he spoke with Trump and told reporters the former president offered one piece of advice: “Make sure you get a good agreement.”

FIRST IN PLAYBOOK — A pair of big new ad campaigns from outside organizations urge Washington to reach a debt limit deal — from different perspectives.

TALK OF THIS TOWN — Michael Schaffer’s latest column: “Do D.C.’s Police Have an Extremism Problem?”

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9:30 a.m.: The president will receive the President’s Daily Brief.

2 p.m.: The Bidens will welcome the LSU women’s basketball team for a celebration of their championship in the East Room, with VP KAMALA HARRIS speaking and second gentleman DOUG EMHOFF attending.

5 p.m.: Biden will welcome the UConn men’s basketball team for a celebration of their championship in the East Room, with Emhoff attending.

6:30 p.m.: The Bidens will leave the White House for Camp David.


DON’T MISS POLITICO’S HEALTH CARE SUMMIT: The Covid-19 pandemic helped spur innovation in health care, from the wide adoption of telemedicine, health apps and online pharmacies to mRNA vaccines. But what will the next health care innovations look like? Join POLITICO on Wednesday June 7 for our Health Care Summit to explore how tech and innovation are transforming care and the challenges ahead for access and delivery in the United States. REGISTER NOW.


A member of the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment also known as The Old Guard, places flags in front of each headstone at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Thursday, May 25, 2023. | Andrew Harnik/AP Photo


MARK YOUR CALENDARS — “Fox News Sets Trump Town Hall Moderated by Sean Hannity,” by The Wrap’s Loree Seitz: “The pretaped event will air next Thursday.”

DeSANTIS, DAY ONE — The fallout from DeSantis’ roundly mocked Twitter Spaces campaign launch continued yesterday, but he plowed right through, raking in an eye-popping first-day haul and planning an aggressive schedule of campaigning and fundraising.

— The money: The campaign raised a staggering $8.2 million in its first 24 hours, NYT’s Shane Goldmacher scooped — blowing big first-day sums from past cycles, like Biden’s or BETO O’ROURKE’s, out of the water. $1 million came in during one hour alone. Donations flew in both online and from a blitz of donor calls at the Miami Four Seasons known as “Ron-o-Rama,” as Alex Isenstadt scooped. More from The Messenger’s Marc Caputo on DeSantis’ polling/strategy presentation to donors

— The media blitz: DeSantis himself started barnstorming conservative media (not the mainstream press, of course), where he finally took some pointed shots at Trump. DeSantis said the former president had moved to the left, abandoned some of his 2016 campaign positions. And he blasted Trump for erring on Covid, immigration, debt and the nomination of FBI Director CHRISTOPHER WRAY. DeSantis also cast himself as the more electable option.

But, but, but: DeSantis also made big news by saying he’d consider pardoning Trump himself, along with Jan. 6 defendants and others, on his first day in office. (One overarching promise of DeSantis’ media hits, CNN’s Steve Contorno notes: that he’ll expand the powers of the presidency in unprecedented ways.)

The tour: DeSantis announced that he’ll hit the trail next week with four days of campaigning across Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina, with a kickoff of sorts in Iowa on Tuesday. And it’s not just the public events: Puck’s Teddy Schleifer scooped the intense schedule of DeSantis fundraising travel through June, which will take the governor through Texas, California, Jersey, Vegas, Florida and more.

WARNING SIGNS FOR BIDEN — The president musters just 60% of the Democratic primary vote in the latest CNN poll, a weak showing for an incumbent who isn’t facing any top-tier opponents. ROBERT F. KENNEDY JR. pulls 20% (though you can expect that to drop as awareness of his anti-vaxxer activism catches up with last-name recognition), and MARIANNE WILLIAMSON is at 8%. More concerningly for Biden: 16% of Dem-aligned white, non-college-educated voters say they definitely would not support him in the general.

EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW — Williamson sat down with our colleagues Jackie Padilla, Meiying Wu and Chris Farmer to talk about her latest presidential bid, making the case for her candidacy and explaining what’s different from her 2020 run. Watch the interview on The POLITICO Show on Snapchat

SOMEBODY BUY STEVE DAINES A DRINK — The Republican establishment is breathing easier today after DOUG MASTRIANO made the surprise announcement last night that he won’t run for U.S. Senate in Pennsylvania. The far-right state senator became a MAGA hero in his losing gubernatorial run last year. Now, former hedge funder DAVID McCORMICK could have an easier path if he jumps into the race, though it’s possible another more Trumpist contender could emerge, Holly Otterbein reports. State Treasurer STACY GARRITY is not ruling out a run, and the field is now “wide open,” AP’s Marc Levy writes.

But even without Mastriano, Republicans may still have trouble taking down Democratic Sen. BOB CASEY, Holly writes: “[B]ehind the scenes, GOP elected officials, strategists and donors are still not bullish about their chances.”

The Mastriano news is the latest in a string of successes for the NRSC as it tries to recruit what it sees as more electable Senate nominees than the party had last year. But the GOP will have to keep searching in Arizona, as KARRIN TAYLOR ROBSON announced that she won’t run. The wealthy establishment favorite narrowly lost to KARI LAKE in the 2022 gubernatorial primary.

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Altria is leading the way in transitioning millions of adult smokers from cigarettes to a smoke-free future.


DOCU-DRAMA — Just a day before the FBI came to Mar-a-Lago last June to get classified materials, two Trump employees moved boxes of documents around, WaPo’s Devlin Barrett, Josh Dawsey, Spencer Hsu and Perry Stein scooped. Now federal investigators are viewing that action as potentially problematic or even as evidence of criminal obstruction as they probe Trump’s handling of classified docs. The investigation has also determined that Trump sometimes showed classified materials to visitors. All in all, the findings “suggest a greater breadth and specificity to the instances of possible obstruction … It also broadens the timeline of possible obstruction episodes that investigators are examining.”


MENENDEZ PROBE KEEPS SIMMERING — “Did Sen. Robert Menendez and Wife Get Car, D.C. Apartment, Other ‘Gifts’ From NJ Business?” by WNBC-TV’s Jonathan Dienst, Courtney Copenhagen and Tom Winter

FIRST IN PLAYBOOK — Some of the country’s biggest sports organizations are taking on drones. The NFL, MLB, NASCAR and NCAA are sending a letter to congressional leaders urging the passage of a bipartisan bill that would strengthen counter-drone authorities for law enforcement. “The unauthorized use of drones (whether malicious or otherwise) presents a significant and rising threat to all large gatherings of people, including major sporting events,” they warn. Read the letter here

WAR EAGLE — “Sen. Tuberville’s hold on military promotions will apply to Biden’s new Joint Chiefs nominee,” by NBC’s Frank Thorp, Mike Memoli and Christina Zhao

OUTSIDER INSIDER — “Meet the ex-food writer advising Tommy Tuberville on national security,” by WaPo’s Ben Terris: “The rise of political novices has, in turn, elevated the importance of the advisers who influence them. And when it comes to Tuberville’s one-man blockade of Pentagon appointees, the Alabama senator may never have known which norm to break without MORGAN MURPHY, whose past life included a stint at Vanity Fair, a tour in Afghanistan and multiple appearances on the home-shopping network QVC.”


LONE STAR EARTHQUAKE — “Texas House committee issues 20 articles of impeachment against Attorney General Ken Paxton,” by The Texas Tribune’s James Barragán, Robert Downen and Zach Despart: “The House will next decide whether to approve the articles against Paxton, which could lead to the attorney general’s removal from office pending the outcome of a trial to be conducted by the Senate.”

TV TONIGHT — PBS’ “Washington Week,” guest-moderated by Lisa Desjardins: Farnoush Amiri, Peter Baker, John Bresnahan and Francesca Chambers.


FOX “Fox News Sunday”: Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) … Rep. Jim Himes (D-Conn.) … Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-Wash.) and William Ostan. Panel: Charlie Hurt, Annmarie Hordern, Michael Allen and Kevin Walling.

MSNBC “The Sunday Show”: Rep. Jim Clyburn (D-S.C.) … Rep. Jasmine Crockett (D-Texas) … Asa Hutchinson … Shai Akabas.

CNN “State of the Union”: New Hampshire Gov. Chris Sununu.

NBC “Meet the Press”: Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-R.I.) … Roy Blunt. SCOTUS clerk panel: Andrew Crespo and Jennifer Mascott. Panel: Joan Biskupic, Laura Jarrett, Dahlia Lithwick and Nina Totenberg.

CBS “Face the Nation”: Brad Smith … Austan Goolsbee.

GET READY FOR GLOBAL TECH DAY: Join POLITICO Live as we launch our first Global Tech Day alongside London Tech Week on Thursday, June 15. Register now for continuing updates and to be a part of this momentous and program-packed day! From the blockchain, to AI, and autonomous vehicles, technology is changing how power is exercised around the world, so who will write the rules? REGISTER HERE.

Ritchie Torres became the latest Democrat to call for Dianne Feinstein’s resignation.

Oprah doesn’t want to replace Feinstein.

Garret Graves dodged a question on the debt limit with a history lesson.

Andrés Manuel López Obrador waded into American politics, urging Hispanics not to support Ron DeSantis’ presidential bid.

Phil Cox and Donald Trump both teed off at a LIV Golf tournament.

Zumi, a lost puppy, was found (and reunited) via the Capitol Police.

OUT AND ABOUT — The Hispanic Heritage Foundation and the Walt Disney Co. hosted a discussion on authentic Hispanic representation in media and elsewhere in Rayburn yesterday. SPOTTED: Rep. Tony Cárdenas (D-Calif.), Yvett Merino, Jose Antonio Tijerino, Estuardo Rodriguez, Carla Rynerson, Marco Davis, William Campos, Juana Pacheco, Jaqueline Serrano, Fred Sottnick, Katie Rosborough, Adrienne Chistolini, Nigel Sanchez, Rafael Ulloa, Jeyben Castro, Nate Beltran, Isabel Sanchez, Ahmed Elsayed, Carlos Condarco, Lewis Myers and Patricia Zaragoza.

MEDIA MOVES — WSJ deputy editors-in-chief Neal Lipschutz and Jason Anders are leaving the paper, “the latest in a string of changes since [Emma] Tucker took over the newsroom in February,” NYT’s Katie Robertson reports. … Andrew McGill is starting his own product consulting firm, The Andrew McGill Company. He most recently was editor of interactive news at POLITICO.

TRANSITION — Alex Heathcock is now government affairs manager at the Economic Innovation Group. She previously was a senior associate at Cornerstone Government Affairs.

HAPPY BIRTHDAY: Rep. Jan Schakowsky (D-Ill.) … Vox’s Noel KingAndrew BeileinMike Harney … NBC’s Tom Ranzweiler John BrodtkeMatt KeelenMiriam Cash … ClearPath’s Chris TomassiMorgan JacobsAllison Davis Tuck … POLITICO’s Aurora Calderone, Brenda Cruz, Thejaswini Somegowda, Steven Stiles and Jackie Padilla Hana Veselka VizcarraDina Ellis Rochkind … former Reps. Joe Cunningham (D-S.C.) and Rich Nugent (R-Fla.) … Katie Wise Keenan Austin Reed Jonathan Dach

Send Playbookers tips to [email protected] or text us at 202-556-3307. Playbook couldn’t happen without our editor Mike DeBonis, deputy editor Zack Stanton and producers Setota Hailemariam and Bethany Irvine.

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About The Author : Rachael Bade

Rachael BadeRachael Bade is POLITICO’s Senior Washington Correspondent and a Co-Author of Playbook. She specializes in stories illuminating the power struggles and personal dynamics animating the Beltway, breaking news on everything from private Capitol Hill negotiations, to inter- and intra-party clashes impacting the legislative process.

A more than 10-year veteran of the congressional press corps, Rachael covered Congress for POLITICO for six years beginning in 2015. Her work chronicled President Trump’s remaking of the GOP, and she churned out stories with behind-the-scenes details about the struggle between pro-Trump lawmakers and those fearful of the new direction of the party.

In 2019, Rachael joined The Washington Post, where she covered House Democrats’ oversight of the Trump Administration and routinely broke news on the party’s attempts to hold the president accountable as well as the historic impeachment effort. Her work culminated in a book: She is the author of “UNCHECKED: The Untold Story Behind Congress’s Botched Impeachments of Donald Trump,” a scoopy narrative uncovering how Pelosi’s Democrats twice fumbled their efforts to oust the 45th president — and with Republican complacency, undermined the tool of impeachment forevermore.

Rachael is a frequent guest on the Sunday show circuit, appearing on NBC’s “Meet the Press,” CBS’s “Face the Nation,” ABC’s “This Week” and Fox News’ “Fox News Sunday.” She spent half-decade working as a political analyst for CNN. A small-town, Ohio-native, she graduated from the University of Dayton with degrees in political science and communication and is a former classical ballet dancer.

About The Author : Eugene Daniels

Eugene DanielsEugene Daniels is a Playbook co-author and White House correspondent for POLITICO.

Since joining POLITICO in 2018, he’s covered the midterms, the Democratic presidential primary and general election through print, video journalism and podcasts. Eugene will continue to leverage POLITICO’s many platforms as part of the Playbook team. During the country’s reckoning with race in 2020, Eugene moderated POLITICO’s Confronting Inequality Town Hall series that examined how inequities in policing, housing, healthcare, education and employment permeate and plague the United States.

Eugene is a senior “Morning Joe” contributor and MSNBC political analyst where he appears often sharing scoops, reporting and analysis of the biggest news in D.C. He is also on the board of the White House Correspondents’ Association and will be president of the organization beginning in June 2024 through June 2025.

Prior to POLITICO, Eugene covered the 2016 primary, general election and national politics as a political reporter at Newsy. He began his career in local television in Colorado Springs and graduated from Colorado State University in 2012.

About The Author : Ryan Lizza

Ryan LizzaRyan Lizza is a Playbook Co-Author and the Chief Washington Correspondent for POLITICO. He covers campaigns, Congress, and the White House. Since arriving in Washington in 1998, Ryan has written about national politics, policy, and elections for Esquire, New York magazine, GQ, The Washington Post, The New Yorker, The New Republic, The New York Times, and The Atlantic.

Ryan, who is also a Senior Political Analyst for CNN, covered every presidential election since 2000 and the presidencies of Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump. His reporting on Obama won the White House Correspondents’ Association’s Aldo Beckman award for presidential news coverage, and Lizza’s reporting on the Arab Spring won the National Press Club’s Edwin M. Hood Award for Diplomatic Correspondence.

Ryan grew up in New York and is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley.

Want to move to Mexico? Consult your CEO of Dreams

About 10 years ago, I was sitting on the couch with my husband. After another long day at work and putting our toddler to bed, we were exhausted. I went to turn on the TV and zone out like we usually did those days, when Brian took the remote and said, “If we keep pushing play on this version of our life, I can’t be the father or husband I want to be. I’m drained. We need to slow things down, shake things up and get traveling again.”

We’d always been avid travelers and had lived abroad on several occasions, but it had been years since our last big adventure. 

When we became parents, we vowed that having a child wouldn’t keep us from seeing the world. So when the travel bug began to gnaw at us again, we knew it was time to get going. We hatched a plan, and a few years later became permanent residents of Mexico.

Moving to a new country — or making any major life change — doesn’t just require navigating logistics like visas, housing and what to do with all your stuff. Logistical planning is necessary, but it’s not what drives big life change.

Big life change begins with identifying what matters most to you and learning to not spend energy and resources on what doesn’t. It also starts with dedicating time to dream, and it means not letting your fears (or those of others) guide your decision-making. 

My husband could teach a master class on Big Life Change. I call him my “CEO of Dreams.” In our 30 years together, he’s been our conscience, alarm bell, dreamer, doer and overall chief executive of our big life changes.

Debbie and Brian Slobe in Mexico
Three years of saving meant that the author and her family were able to live in Mexico for one year without working. (Courtesy)

I’ve learned a lot from him over the years that I think would benefit others. So, without further ado, I offer up some advice from what I call “The CEO of Dreams’ Guide to Big Life Change.”

Zero in on what matters most

We often say that our families, friendships and health are what matter most to us, but are we really investing the time necessary to honor those things?

Take a good look at what matters most to you and ask yourself: am I investing my time and energy in those things? Or do I need to make a change to free up energy and resources to focus on what matters most? 

What would be required to make that change? Reducing your work schedule? Taking an extended break from work/school as a family? Figure out what you need to make happen in order to focus on what matters most.

Our two top priorities were being the parents we wanted to be for Maya, our young daughter, and the partners we wanted to be for each other. Both were higher priorities than any ladder we could climb in our careers. 

We also craved to travel again and improve our Spanish. Quitting our jobs to live in Mexico for a year was a big step toward focusing on what mattered most. 

Now, as permanent residents of Mexico, we work differently, live more simply and have far more time as a family and as a couple than we ever had as full-time working parents in the U.S.

Chacala Bay, Nayarit.
The ocean bay of Chacala, Nayarit, where the author and her husband and daughter made their second home. (Djmoca/Wikimedia Commons)

Dedicate time and space to dream

This literally means scheduling the time you need to map out a plan for achieving your dreams, not just thinking about it in your car or shower or making a “dream board.” Set aside a specific time and place every week or once a month where there’ll be no distractions where you or you and your partner can talk through your goals and what it’ll take to make them a reality. 

Brian and I mustered up the courage to leave our jobs, and the confidence that we could support ourselves, during hot tub sessions in Colorado. In Chacala Bay, our new home, we still have paddleboard “meetings” out on the water where we reflect on the life we have created and how to keep it going as long as possible.

Cut out unnecessary spending

This is nuts-and-bolts stuff, but it’s a crucial piece of advice for anyone wanting to break free of the rat race: you don’t have to be uber-wealthy to break free. 

If you have a middle-class income (Brian was a schoolteacher and I work in the nonprofit sector) and can lay down some spending rules, you can fund your big life change. 

Take a look at your monthly spending. Instead of buying clothes at department stores, go to thrift and consignment shops; instead of paying for all those streaming services, pick just one; cook at home most of the time; host potlucks instead of fancy parties; reduce your meat consumption; buy food staples in bulk. There are lots of things you can do to reduce your monthly spending that can add up to thousands of dollars a year. It took us about three years to save enough money to go a year in Mexico without working.

On a deeper level, think carefully about your big investments: do you really need a bigger home, a new car or the latest and greatest tech? You might be better served by buying a smaller home, keeping your cars, computers and smartphones longer or by buying used or refurbished products. It’s not about what the Joneses think, it’s about what YOU want. 

Consignment shop stock image
To save up for your big adventure, buy in bulk, buy used and, if you don’t really need it, don’t buy it at all. (Kaylin Pacheco/Unsplash)

Make big life decisions from a place of hope, not fear

Another important thing we’ve learned is to never make big life decisions when you are in a place of anxiety. When you think about moving to a new country, and even after you’ve landed in one, you worry a lot: about what you will do for work, where you will live, will you make friends and more. 

This mental state is the worst for making big life decisions. You’ll only end up limiting your options and keeping yourself stuck in place. 

Whether it’s moving to a new country, quitting your job or taking another kind of leap, make your decision when you’re feeling most hopeful and joyful about that idea. Focus on the freedom, time and new connections and experiences you’ll gain from the change, not on what you might lose. 

I’ve never regretted making a big life change that was in line with my priorities, even if it didn’t turn out the way I’d envisioned. I’ve only felt regret when I haven’t made a change I really wanted.

Debbie Slobe is a writer and communications strategist based in Chacala, Nayarit. She blogs at Mexpatmama.com and is a senior program director at Resource Media. Find her on Instagram and Facebook.

Diego Pacheco to headline July 7 in Monterrey after inking deal

Diego Pacheco has signed a multi-fight promotional deal with Eddie Hearn and Matchroom – and the Super-Middleweight sensation headlines Matchroom’s latest fight night in Mexico, defending his WBO International and USWBC titles against Manuel Gallegos on Friday July 7 in Monterrey, live worldwide on DAZN – with co-main action provided by Matchroom’s latest signing, Super-Featherweight star Rocky Hernandez, who takes on unbeaten Venezuelan Joniker Tovar.

Pacheco (18-0 KOs 15 KOs) turned pro with Hearn in December 2018 and the rangy Super-Middleweight has grown into one of the hottest properties in the sport, closing in on the big-guns at 168lbs and doing so with his trademark fearsome power.

The 22 year old stepped through the ropes for the first time in the UK in his last outing, stopping Jack Cullen in four rounds in Liverpool – a 15th win inside the distance in his 18 fights in the paid ranks to date.

The LA talent steps through the ropes for the seventh time as a pro, and does so over ten rounds against Gallegos (19-1-1 16 KOs) the #2 ranked 168lber in Mexico behind Canelo Alvarez, who is ranked #11 in the WBO. The Mexican will be the latest to try to halt Pacheco’s rise, and the LA native is thrilled to be continuing his journey with the global leader in boxing and expects that ride to take him to World title action soon.

“I am very happy and excited to be extending me deal with Matchroom,” said Pacheco. “We have bene on the path to the top for nearly five years and I couldn’t be in a better place to achieve my goals – to become World champion, to be unified and undisputed, and to be a role model for young kids in LA and Mexico to chase their dreams.

“I’m so happy to be headlining in Mexico on July 7. It will be a good fight against the #2 ranked Super-Middleweight in Mexico – and when I win, I’ll be one step closer to getting to that World title shot.”

“I hope Pacheco is prepared to fight for his life on July 7, because I’m coming to take everything he’s got,” said Gallegos.

Pacheco’s deal comes hot on the heels of the signature of Super-Featherweight star Hernandez, and the WBC #1 ranked KO artist faces Tovar over ten rounds in Monterrey.

Hernandez (33-1 30 KOs) inked a long-term deal with Eddie Hearn today and will look to cement his status as the leading contender for the World champions at 130lbs – but unbeaten Venezuelan Tovar (21-0-1 16 KOs) says Hernandez’s bow with Matchroom will end in tears, reminding the Mexican that fellow countryman Roger Gutierrez stunned him in a round in July 2019 – the sole blemish on Hernandez’s record.

“I’m fighting another undefeated fighter to show that I’m the number one Super-Featherweight in the world and to show my promoter they made the right choice,” said Hernandez. “I’m here for 10 rounds but if he goes before then he goes!”

““We all saw what happened the last time Rocky fought a Venezuelan,” said Tovar. “This fight will be the exact same result. I have been waiting for an opportunity to showcase my talents on a big stage, and now it presents itself. I want to thank my promoter Mr. Shane Shapiro of Shapiro Sports & Ent., Mr. Eddie Hearn of Matchroom Boxing, and DAZN for giving me this massive moment.”

“What a great day for Matchroom and DAZN in America and Mexico – securing two of the best young fighters out there and putting them together on a card in Monterrey,” said Hearn.

“Diego is the best young talent in the game – and we are delighted to have extended his deal with us. From the day he first put pen to paper with us in October 2018, there’s been no doubt in my mind that he would get to the very top.

“We’ve watched Diego blossom in and out of the ring; a powerful puncher with venom and a humble young man with his community and family in his heart – Diego can become a massive star in America and Mexico, and we are with him every step of the way.

“Rocky can almost reach out and touch that World title shot. This one is slated for ten rounds, but when you look at their respective records, both guys will be looking for an early night. Joniker is dangerous and confident, but with the champions at 130lb tuned in, Rocky will want to shine, and I expect him to do just that.”

The venue in Monterrey and ticket details will be released next week.

Arsenal 0-2 Aston Villa: Player ratings as Gunners dealt harsh final day defeat

FROM MEADOW PARK – In a final day thriller, Aston Villa clinched a 2-0 win after at the end of a stellar WSL season, dealing Arsenal one last harsh blow.

Strikes from Rachel Daly and Alisha Lehmann sealed the visitors’ final win of the season in a frustrating match for the home side at a sunny Meadow Park.

While the result made little impact on the standings – Arsenal staying in third and Villa sealing fifth place – it spoke to just how much significant progress Carla Ward’s side have made this season, proving they can compete with the top teams in the WSL.

Arsenal were dominant in the first eight minutes, with an opportune chance for Stina Blackstenius narrowly missing the goal after some imperative intervening from Aston Villa full-back Maz Pacheco.

With another wonder strike from Katie McCabe sailing just wide of the goal, frustrations from the home side were beginning to build. Kirsty Hanson was proving a problem on the flank, which Villa have used to their benefit all season.

The first half wavered in possession and press, with both teams in need of being more creative in front of goal. Jodie Taylor earned the first booking of the afternoon as the matchup began to even out.

The midfield battle between Victoria Pelova and Laure Blindkilde-Brown was dominating the pace of the game, both proving a menace for the other as Arsenal struggled to capitalise on their chances in the final third.

Frida Maanum forced a big save from visiting keeper Hannah Hampton as the north London side looked to press the visitors at the end of the first half.

On the turn of half-time, a scramble in the box saw Golden Boot leader Daly slot home against the run of play.

The pressure was on for the Gunners to overturn a 1-0 deficit. However, a lapse in communication at the back meant Lehmann managed to slot the ball past Sabrina D’Angelo to double Villa’s lead just after the restart.

Another nervy moment for Arsenal nearly gifted Daly a brace but the star striker sent a sitter just over the top.

Aston Villa’s ability to get bodies back was proving vital in denying Arsenal a way back into the game.

Arsenal were unable to get on the scoresheet but wrapped up third place and a return to the Champions League regardless.

Arsenal player ratings (3-4-2-1)

GK: Sabrina D’Angelo- 5/10 – Not as controlled nor comfortable as seen previously.

CB: Jen Beattie- 6/10 – Struggled to prevent a consistent press from Villa,

CB: Lotte Wubben-Moy – 6/10 – Had one of her better performances for the Gunners this season. Made some important challenges and did well to prevent more chances though did have a few nervy moments.

CB: Rafaelle – 8/10 – Provided an attacking option pressing forward that proved effective in her farewell performance.

RM: Noelle Maritz – 7/10- Did well to contain Hanson at times but removed her from attacking co-stars on various occasions.

CM: Victoria Pelova – 8/10- Controlled the midfield, causing problems for numerous Villa players.

CM: Frida Maanum – 7/10- Made good runs but struggled to convert the chances.

LM: Steph Catley – 7/10- Provided extra attacking options but struggled to contain the wingers at times.

RW: Jodie Taylor- 6/10 – Used her pace well but struggled to find a way through.

ST: Stina Blackstenius – 6/10- Struggled to take chances but did well-finding space in amongst a congested box, subbed at half-time.

LW: Katie McCabe – 6/10 – Was called into defend more, removing her as an attacking option. Broke through on several occasions but struggled to make anything come from it.

Katherine Kuhl (46′ for Blackstenius) – 5/10- Played passed in the final third too slow and held up pace.

Gio (81′ for Taylor) – N/A

Jonas Eidevall – 6/10- Struggled with creativity and ran out of sub options to find a way back into the game.

Aston Villa Player Ratings (4-3-3)

GK: Hannah Hampton – 6/10 – Had little to do but did well to keep a clean sheet.

RB: Sarah Mayling – 7/10- Did well to contain the wingers but was nullified going forward.

CB: Rachel Corsie- 6/10 – Held the backline together, stopping Arsenal from finding a way through.

CB: Danielle Turner- 6/10 – Did well to prevent Arsenal a way back into the game.

LB: Maz Pacheco- 7/10 – Did well in the linkup with Hanson, managed to contain McCabe well.

CM: Kirsty Hanson- 8/10 – Caused a lot of problems in the channels and on the wing.

CM: Lucy Staniforth – 7/10 – Did well defensively to stop Arsenal forwards breaking into the box.

CM: Remi Allen – 6/10 – Was kept relatively quiet but maintained good possession for Arsenal.

RW: Laura Blindkilde-Brown – 7/10- Used as an attacking player very well, given far too much space to run at times.

CF: Rachel Daly – 8/10 – Inevitable that she would get a goal. Winner of the Golden Boot.

LW: Alisha Lehmann – 7/10- Caused Catley trouble, ultimately doubling her side’s lead in the second half.

Carla Ward – 8/10 – Ended a spectacular season on another high.

Player of the match: Rafaelle

Francisco Juan Pacheco: The Visionary Dentist Revolutionizing the Field of Dentistry

Biography of Francisco Juan Pacheco: A Visionary Dentist

Francisco Juan Pacheco was born on July 12th, 1950, in the vibrant city of Barcelona, Spain. His journey as a pioneering dentist began in his childhood, driven by an innate curiosity about the intricacies of dental health and a desire to create confident smiles. Francisco’s relentless pursuit of knowledge and his commitment to providing exceptional care would eventually make him one of the most revered and influential figures in the field of dentistry.

Growing up in a middle-class family, Francisco’s early exposure to dentistry came through his father, who worked as a dental technician. Fascinated by his father’s craft, young Francisco spent countless hours watching him meticulously create dentures and various dental prosthetics. These experiences ignited a passion within him and served as the foundation for his future endeavors.

After completing secondary education with distinction, Pacheco earned a spot at the prestigious University of Barcelona’s Faculty of Dentistry. Under the tutelage of renowned professors and researchers in the field, he expanded his knowledge base while honing his technical skills.

Throughout his academic years at university, it became evident that Francisco possessed an exceptional ability to understand complex dental concepts quickly. His astute observational skills enabled him to identify gaps in existing treatments and propose innovative solutions which consequently caught the attention of both faculty members and students alike.

Upon completion of his dental degree with top honors, Pacheco decided it was time to gain practical experience outside academia. He joined a well-established private practice that specialized in restorative dentistry under Dr. María López Herrera – herself an eminent figure within the Spanish dental community. During this period working alongside Herrera, Francisco further refined his clinical skills while cultivating relationships with patients who would become lifelong advocates for his talents.

Though content with practicing dentistry within existing paradigms during this initial stage of his career trajectory, Pacheco soon realized that merely treating dental problems was not enough for him. Driven by an insatiable desire to improve patient experiences and outcomes, he immersed himself in the world of research and development.

In 1978, at the age of 28, Francisco founded his own dental clinic, aptly named “Pacheco Dental Innovations.” This marked a turning point in his life, as he had finally found a platform to channel his visionary ideas into reality. Francisco’s clinic quickly gained recognition for its cutting-edge techniques and patient-centric approach.

Known for never resting on his laurels, Pacheco embarked on numerous research projects aimed at developing novel dental materials and advancing treatment methodologies. His relentless pursuit of scientific excellence earned him multiple patents for innovations such as biocompatible tooth-colored restorative materials and minimally invasive techniques that revolutionized the field.

While actively pursuing research endeavors, Francisco remained deeply committed to educating future generations of dentists. He contributed extensively to academia by publishing groundbreaking articles in reputable dental journals while also frequently delivering lectures at national and international conferences.

Over time, Pacheco’s groundbreaking work gained global recognition within the dental community. Esteemed societies such as the International Association for Dental Research acknowledged his unparalleled contributions with prestigious awards and accolades. Moreover, he was often invited to conduct workshops where he shared his knowledge with fellow dental professionals eager to implement his innovative methods into their own practices.

Today, Francisco Juan Pacheco is considered an icon in modern dentistry – a visionary dentist who has dedicated his life to improving oral health through innovative approaches that prioritize patient comfort and satisfaction above all else. His countless contributions have not only transformed countless lives but have also shaped the future of dentistry itself.

As this trailblazing dentist continues on his remarkable journey, it remains evident that Francisco Juan Pacheco’s impact on dentistry will be felt for generations to come.

Made From India launches on-line totally free e-showroom solution

Made From India launches on the internet cost-free e-showroom solution


Info is should for each producers, vendors, investors, merchants as well as importers of any type of nation on the planet of organization. Without details regarding the customers, a vendor of solutions as well as products can not endure in the affordable globe next to numerous various other obstacles which produces obstacle for smooth organization.

The legend of discovering purchasers is a lengthy time migraine for vendors. It implies just discovering, assessing, recognition, method as well as persuading a customer for pressing a sale.

With Marketing, different settings likewise emerged, one among it is web service additionally referred to as ecommerce. Naturally, e-bay, brought a transformation in the area of net marketing.It additionally encountered challenging days to lastly win the self-confidence of individuals that of course net is likewise a system where the demands of a purchaser and also vendor is satisfied.

With shopping being a truth in the e-age itself, the worldwide customers and also vendor had an usual system at once to check out the opportunities of global service next to the nationwide organization.

For the very first time, the suppliers, merchants, vendors, investors, importers all were having some digital presence close to their physical arrangement using manufacturing facilities, display rooms, electrical outlets, trading depots and so on.


India being the fastest expanding economic situation of the globe, is looked by nations of the globe for outsourcing their solutions as well as items requirements. The factor being the products and also solutions of India are not just economical however most affordable as well as finest in high quality.

To improve exports from India and also to accomplish the demands of worldwide investors that constantly want to acquire ideal Indian items, www.made-from-india.com, an organization to service(B2B) site has actually developed to provide the demands of Indian makers, Indian merchants also importers from india as well as for various other nations of the globe.

It provides newest offers/leads of products/services of vendors & makers also of solution carriers of India next to customers from various other nations of Asia, Europe, Africa etc.It is a full company profession directory site with information of items as well as firms to make sure that the info is traded secure and also with the outcome of company night and day and also in different nations of the globe. Our goal is to please the fundamental component of company which is just Profit.

The legend of locating customers is a lengthy time migraine for vendors. Advertising and marketing is really easy however what makes complex is the term advertising itself. It indicates just discovering, examining, recognition, technique as well as encouraging a purchaser for pressing a sale.

Detroit Tigers – Down On The Farm: Erie and Lakeland split their series while Toledo and West Michigan lost their series – Detroit Sports Nation

The Detroit Tigers Minor League Teams had a rough week going a combined 10-14. Their AAA team, the Toledo Mud Hens, took on the Omaha Storm Chasers. The AA team, the Erie Seawolves, took on the Harrisburg Senators. The High A affiliate of the Tigers the West Michigan Whitecaps faced off with the Great Lakes Loons. The A-level affiliate, the Lakeland Flying Tigers, had a series with the Fort Myers Mighty Mussels.

Detroit Tigers- AAA Toledo Mud Hens

Mud Hens (20-18) vs. Omaha Storm Chasers (15-22)

The Toledo Mud Hens dropped their series against Omaha, winning two of the six games.

Tuesday: Toledo 9, Omaha 2

The Mud Hens started the week off with a win over Omaha. Four Mud Hens hitters had two hits, but Parker Meadows led the way for the offense driving in three runs. Ashton Goudeau got the ball in the opener and went just one inning giving up one run on one hit; he walked three and struck out one. The bullpen held it down for Toledo, combing for eight innings of work between four pitchers allowing just one run on eight hits; they combined for five walks and 11 strikeouts.

Wednesday: Toledo 8, Omaha 16

Toledo drops their first game of the week to Omaha. Six hitters in the Mud Hens lineup picked up multiple hits, with Tyler Nevin and Michael Papierski both picking up three hits in the loss. Zach Logue got the start and only lasted 0.2 innings giving up seven runs, four of which were earned on five hits; he walked one and failed to record a strikeout.

Thursday: Toledo 0, Omaha 9

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The Mud Hens dropped their second straight game to the Storm Chasers. The offense failed to show up for Toledo in this one, as they only picked up three hits coming from Andre Lipcius, Jonathan Davis, and Jermaine Palacios. Brennan Hanifee got the start and picked up his third loss of the season, going 4.2 innings, giving up three runs on six hits; he walked two and struck out four.

Friday: Toledo 1, Omaha 9

Toledo continued their struggles against Omaha, dropping their third straight. Jonathan Davis led the Mud Hens offense with two hits and scored their lone run. Miguel Del Pozo got the start going one inning, not allowing a base runner or a run, he struck out two. Austin Bergner came in after that and struggled, giving up four runs on four hits; he walked four and struck out one.

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Saturday: Toledo 4, Omaha 1

The Mud Hens got back in the win column against Omaha. Five different Toledo hitters had a hit to pace the offense. Reese Olson got the start and picked up his second win going five innings giving up no runs and just one hit; he walked two and struck out nine.

Sunday: Toledo 4, Omaha 8

Toledo dropped the finale to the Storm Chasers. The Mud Hens offense had 15 hits on the day; despite the loss, Andre Lipcius led the way collecting four hits, with four other players picking up two hits each. Ashton Goudeau got the start going four innings giving up four runs, three of which were earned on six hits; he walked two and struck out three.

Weekly Toledo Leaders

Week Ahead

Coming Up Next: Toledo will return home to take on the Rochester Red Wings, who are the AAA affiliate of the Washington Nationals. The Red Wings will have the 20th-ranked Nationals prospect pitching in this series LHP Matt Cronin and Cronin will probably pitch out of the bullpen every opposite day.

Detroit Tigers- AA Erie SeaWolves

SeaWolves (17-16) vs. Harrisburg Senators (16-16)

The Erie SeaWolves split their series with the Senators and lost first place in the division, now trailing Richmond by a half-game.

Tuesday: Erie 18, Harrisburg 8

The SeaWolves’ offense went off in the first game of the week against the Senators. Colt Keith led the way going 6-6 and hitting for the cycle, he had two home runs, a double, a triple, and two singles while driving in seven runs. Ty Madden got the start going four innings giving up four runs, only two of which were earned on four hits; he walked two and struck out three.

Wednesday: Erie 4, Harrisburg 2

Erie picked up their second win over Harrisburg. Grant Witherspoon led the offense with two hits, Luis Garcia delivered the big hit though with a three-run home run in the Top of the 2nd. Sawyer Gipson-Long got the start for Erie going 4.1 innings, giving up just one run on five hits; he walked four and struck out three.

Thursday: Erie 2, Harrisburg 4

The SeaWolves picked up their first loss of the week to the Senators. Jake Holton led the way for the offense with two hits and the team’s lone RBI. Wilmer Flores made the start by going five innings giving up two runs on four hits; he walked two and struck out four.

Friday: Erie 6, Harrisburg 0

The SeaWolves got back in the win column against Harrisburg. Andrew Navigato led the Erie offense with two hits, and Jake Holton and Daniel Cabrera each drove in two runs. Brant Hurter got the start going five innings, and he didn’t allow a run on four hits; he didn’t issue a walk and struck out four.

Saturday: Erie 8, Harrisburg 10

Erie picked up their second loss of the week. The SeaWolves’ offense was led by Colt Keith, who had three hits and two RBI. Keider Montero got the start going, and he struggled going 1.2 innings, giving up six runs on six hits; he walked two and struck out three.

Sunday: Erie 6, Harrisburg 8

The SeaWolves lost the finale to Harrisburg. Colt Keith was at it again, picking up three hits and Wenceel Perez drove in two runs. Ty Madden made his second start and struggled going 3.2 innings, giving up three runs on five hits; he walked two and struck out four.

Weekly Erie Leaders

Week Ahead

Coming Up Next: Erie will return home for a rematch of last year’s Eastern League Championship against the Somerset Patriots, the AA affiliate of the New York Yankees. The Patriots have four of the top five Yankees prospects; Outfielder Jasson Dominguez, who is ranked first and also 37th overall; Catcher Austin Wells, who is the Yankees’ second-ranked prospect; Outfielder Everson Pereira, whose fourth-ranked; and SS Trey Sweeney, who is ranked fifth in the Yankees system.

Detroit Tigers- High A West Michigan Whitecaps

Whitecaps (20-13) vs. Great Lakes Loons (21-12)

The West Michigan Whitecaps dropped their series with Great Lakes and missed out on a chance at first place.

Tuesday: West Michigan 11, Great Lakes 10

The Whitecaps got the week started with a win over the Loons. All but one of the starting nine hitters for West Michigan had a hit, with four of those hitters having a multi-hit day. Williander Moreno got the start, and he struggled, going four innings and giving up six runs on six hits; he walked two and struck out one.

Wednesday: West Michigan 2, Great Lakes 4

West Michigan dropped their first game of the week to the Loons. Austin Murr led the offense with two hits, and Eliezer Alonzo and Dillon Paulson each drove in a run. Wilkel Hernandez made the start going 4.2 innings; he did not allow a run on three hits; he walked one and struck out one.

Thursday: West Michigan 0, Great Lakes 10

The Whitecaps dropped their second straight game to Great Lakes. The offense combined for five total hits coming from five different players; Roberto Campos had the only extra-base hit on the day with a double. Carlos Pena got the start and took his second loss of the season, going three innings and giving up five runs on six hits; he walked two and struck out five.

Friday: West Michigan 2, Great Lakes 3

West Michigan dropped their third straight to the Loons, as Great Lakes scored three runs in the ninth to walk it off. The Whitecaps’ offense was led by Austin Murr, who picked up two hits in the loss. Garrett Burhenn got the start going five innings; he didn’t allow a run on two hits; he walked one and struck out seven. Burhenn left the game in line for the win, but in the ninth, Trevin Michael gave up three runs on one hit and two walks in 0.1 innings of work.

Saturday: West Michigan 6, Great Lakes 0

The Whitecaps got back in the win column with a win over Great Lakes. Izaac Pacheco and Eliezer Alfonzo led the offense with three hits and an RBI each. Jack O’Loughlin got the ball and picked up his second win of the season, going five innings; he didn’t allow a run on three hits; he walked one and struck out four.

Sunday: West Michigan 3, Great Lakes 6

West Michigan dropped their fourth game to the Loons. Chris Meyers led the offense with three hits, two home runs, and all three RBI. Williander Moreno got the ball and went 2.1 innings, and he didn’t give up a run on three hits; he didn’t walk anyone or strike anyone out.


Weekly West Michigan Leaders

Week Ahead

Coming Up Next: West Michigan will return home to take on the Lake County Captains, the High A affiliate of the Cleveland Guardians. The Captains will bring in the 99th-ranked prospect Outfielder Chase DeLauter who ranks seventh in the Guardians system, and Guardians tenth-ranked prospect OF/2B Jake Fox.

Detroit Tigers- A-Level Lakeland Flying Tigers

Flying Tigers (13-20) vs. Fort Myers Mighty Mussels (19-14)

The Lakeland Flying Tigers salvaged a series split against the Mighty Mussels.

Tuesday: Lakeland 5, Fort Myers 6

The Flying Tigers started their series against Fort Myers with a loss. Mike Rothenburg and Adinso Reyes led the Lakeland offense with two hits each, while Luke Gold drove in two runs. Cole Patten got the start in this one going four innings, giving up four runs, three earned on four hits; he walked one and struck out five.

Wednesday: Lakeland 7, Fort Myers 1

Lakeland got back in the win column with their first win of the week against Fort Myers. The Flying Tigers’ offense was led by Seth Stephenson, picking up two hits on the day. Sean Guenther got the start going two innings, giving up just one hit. He did not allow a run; he didn’t walk anyone and struck out four.

Thursday: Lakeland 1, Fort Myers 2

The Flying Tigers dropped their second game of the week to the Mighty Mussels, another one-run loss. Six different Lakeland hitters had a hit in the loss, with Mike Rothenburg driving in the lone run on a solo home run. Troy Melton got the start going 1.1 innings, and he didn’t allow a run on one hit; he walked one and struck out three.

Friday: Lakeland 7, Fort Myers 6

Lakeland evened up their series against Fort Myers at two games apiece. The Flying Tigers got a big game from Luke Gold, who had three hits, and Peyton Graham, who hit a three-run home run. Marco Jimenez got the ball to start and went 2.2 innings giving up two runs; one earned without giving up a hit; he walked two and struck out one.

Saturday: Lakeland 3, Fort Myers 4

Lakeland dropped their third game of the week to the Mighty Mussels. The Flying Tigers’ offense was led by Peyton Graham, who had two hits on the day. Max Green made the start for Lakeland going one inning, and he didn’t allow a run or a hit, walked one, and struck out one. Ulices Campos came in in relief, went four innings, and gave up four runs on six hits; he walked two and struck out four.

Sunday: Lakeland 6, Fort Myers 5

The Flying Tigers picked up a win in the finale against Fort Myers. Serigo Tapia had three hits, as well as Seth Stephenson and Carlos Pelegrin each picking up two hits. Carlos Marcano got the start going four innings giving up two runs on four hits; he walked two and struck out four.

Weekly Lakeland Leaders

Week Ahead

Coming Up Next: Lakeland will head to Daytona to take on the Daytona Tortugas, the A-level affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds. The Tortugas will bring in the 56th-ranked prospect 3B Cam Collier, who ranks fourth in the Reds System, and Reds ninth-ranked prospect 3B Sal Stewart.

Brother vs brother in 15th-century Castile: The Battle of Olmedo in 1467 – Medievalists.net

By Javier García de Gabiola

During the mid-fifteenth century, the Kingdom of Castile was involved in a bloody set of three large battles to determine whether its king would prevail over the nobles in a kind of Spanish Wars of the Roses. The second of these battles was Olmedo, in 1467. There, Enrique IV, malignantly called “the Impotent,” fought his fourteen-year-old half-brother Alfonso. Scholars have previously simply described the battle as a confused fight and nobody has made a serious effort to narrate it. But we have at least two different chronicles, one for each side of the battle. They tell us the story in detail, blow by blow, allowing us to reconstruct the events at Olmedo.

“To the ground, bitch!” – with these words Diego Lopez de Stúñiga, Count of Miranda, tore down a statue of King Enrique IV of Castile on 5 June 1465 before the populace. That was the end of a crude ceremony known as the Farce of Ávila. During this act Alfonso Carrillo, Archbishop of Toledo, read a proclamation in which the king was disparaged as a friend of the Moors and as effeminate. It was also claimed that his daughter Juana, the presumptive heiress, was not his, but the child of Beltrán de la Cueva (thus, Juana has passed into history as “la Beltraneja”). Then the rebel nobles proceeded to proclaim Prince Alfonso as their new king.


The main instigator of the Farce of Avila was Juan Pacheco, Marquis of Villena, who had been the tutor of King Enrique while he was a child. Pacheco, a very capable man, had masterfully directed the government of Castile during the early years of Enrique’s reign, but he lost his position with the appearance of the new favorite, Beltrán. Then Pacheco, slippery and tortuous, a warrior who looked like a priest, forged an alliance with a priest who looked like a warrior, the fierce Archbishop of Toledo.

The war began with occasional sieges and maneuvers until the situation intensified in August 1467. In the important town of Medina del Campo, the loyal citizens had raised breastworks to prevent the rebel knights from exiting La Mota Castle. However, the militias were being hard-pressed by the knights, so they called upon King Enrique for help. Hurrying to their aid, Enrique left Segovia, then the capital of the kingdom, with his allies the Mendoza clan, led by the Marquis of Santillana, and his favorite, Beltrán de la Cueva. In Cuéllar, a city 65 kilometers to the north, they were joined by the retinues of Pedro Velasco. He was originally one of the supporters of the rebel prince Alfonso, but had returned to the king’s side. Enrique’s army numbered about 4,000 men, made up of 1,430–1,700 cavalry (of which 800 were knights in full armor) and 2,550 footmen.

In front of them, Prince Alfonso’s troops were concentrated in Olmedo, a village located west of Cuéllar that blocked the road to Medina del Campo. There, Alfonso’s army was as yet not at its full strength, since his main ally, Pacheco, was still in Toledo. Thus, the prince had only 800 horses of the Stúñiga clan, the Count of Luna, the Archbishop of Toledo, plus a troop from Pacheco, under Garcia de Padilla. News of this came to King Enrique, who, pressed by Santillana, decided to march to Medina del Campo passing in front of Olmedo because he thought that the rebels would not dare to intercept him.

The royalists were not aware, however, that within a few days Alfonso’s army would be reinforced, raising their numbers to about 2,000 men, made up of 1,350–1,550 cavalry (of which 400 were knights) and about 500 footmen. Where it mattered, both sides were evenly matched, because the infantrymen were made up of citizen militias, who consisted of crossbowmen and spearmen who had no other function than to protect the camp or for siege works. Enrique had twice as many knights as Alfonso, but had one-third less jinetes. The jinetes were light cavalry with half armor and iron hats, who could fight as heavy cavalry, but being lightly armed, agile, and fast, were more suited to harassing the enemy by throwing javelins.

Opening moves

King Enrique´s troops left Cuéllar on 18 August for Olmedo, crossing the river Eresma, only to find two days later that the rebels were blocking his march. The final deployment of both sides is somewhat doubtful. Nevertheless, analyzing the sometimes contradictory information of both chroniclers and comparing them with the development of the battle, we can make an educated guess. Alfonso´s forces were arranged this way: on the right battle was Padilla, with Pacheco´s troops, some 200-400 jinetes in all; then it followed the central battle of the Archbishop of Toledo, the leader of the rebel army, with a squadron of heavy cavalry under his personal command of 120 men-at-arms, and to his left, another squadron of 250 jinetes under his illegitimate son, Troilo Carrillo. Behind them it was the rearguard of the Stúñiga clan, consisting of 150 knights under the Count of Plasencia, escorted by two squadrons of 200 or 250 jinetes of the Countess of Belalcázar and the Count of Siruela, under Pedro de Hontiveros and the Count of Ribadeo. Among them they were probably also included 80 horsemen of the Count of Miranda. Finally, there was the battle of the left, with a squadron under Fonseca with 130 knights, and then a squadron of 250 jinetes under Enríquez and the Count of Luna. Prince Alfonso who was still a minor, was based at the monastery of Santo Domingo, near Olmedo, accompanied by the knights less fit for war.

King Enrique and his troops left Cuéllar on 18 August for Olmedo, only to find two days later that the rebels were blocking his march. After some unsuccessful attempts to avoid battle, the armies began to advance on each other in what was to be a cavalry-only battle. In the August mid-day sun, the royal left flank under the Marquis of Santillana hit Padilla’s rebel right flank, pushing it backwards and taking his flag. However, the other royal units on the left flank were defeated and forced to flee. The rebels, more agile and faster than the heavy cavalry of Santillana’s main squadron, probably evaded him and turned to his flanks to disperse the loyalists’ jinetes. In any case, Santillana held his squadron and then, as we will see, he would perform the brightest action of the battle as he crossed the entire field to aid Beltrán de la Cueva. To do this, Santillana had to leave his sector of the battlefield – a fact that, to a pro-Alfonso chronicler, probably caused a false impression that he had been defeated.

Meanwhile, on the right wing, the loyalists were being destroyed. It had all started with a head-on clash between the two rival wings of cavalry: the rebels Hernando de Fonseca and Enrique Enríquez charged against Beltrán de la Cueva. Once the spears were broken in the initial clash, the knights drew their swords and continued to fight. The rebels began to push Beltrán’s troop, who lost a banner. In fact, the king’s favorite was hit by several enemy knights who surrounded him, and he was about to be killed or captured. However, Beltrán was an exceptional rider, and despite having his reins cut and losing both his spurs and his horse’s bit, he managed to survive. Even more, Beltrán went into personal combat with Fonseca, and “hit him with the tip of the sword, which came between the bevor and the sallet, that mortally wounded him.” In the end Fonseca lost his helmet, was wounded twice, and, after losing two other knights of his entourage, had to leave the battle, only to die a few days later.

The left flank of King Enrique’s army was formed from troops of the Mendoza clan. First, the 300 jinetes under Galindo; then 200 knights under Marquis of Santillana; and finally, 150 jinetes under Pedro González de Mendoza, Bishop of Calahorra, and Juan de Mendoza. The center of the army was placed under Pedro Velasco, and was formed into three squadrons: on the left 80 knights under Juan de Velasco, Lord of Siruela; then 320 knights of Pedro Velasco; and on his right, the brothers Luis and Sancho Velasco with 300 jinetes. Finally, there was the right wing, under Beltrán de la Cueva, with 150 knights, flanked by other 200 jinetes under another Velasco. Behind, it was King Enrique with an escort of less than thirty horsemen, and even further in the rear, guarding the camp, the footmen.

After some unsuccessful attempts to avoid the battle, the squadrons began their advance against each other in what was to be a solely cavalry battle. The sound of hooves hitting the ground joined the neighing of horses, and the cavalry, firstly marching forward, then accelerating the trot, and finally at full gallop with the spears pointing forward, clashed with their enemies.

With the armour shining under the August mid-day light, the loyal Mendozas´ left flank under the Marquis of Santillana hit on Padilla´s rebel right flank, pushing it backwards and taking his flag. However, the royalist flanks, under Galindo and Juan de Mendoza, formed by jinetes were in turn defeated by the rebel horsemen and ended up fleeing and losing two banners. The rebels, more agile and faster than the heavy cavalry of Santillana´s main squadron, probably evaded him and turned to his flanks to disperse the loyalists jinetes. In any case, Santillana held his squadron and then, as we will see, he would make the brightest action of the battle as he crossed the entire field to aid Beltrán de la Cueva’s battle. To do this, Santillana had to leave his sector of the battlefield, a fact that probably caused the wrong impression to a pro-Alfonso chronicler that he had been defeated.

Rebels killed and captured

Meanwhile, on the opposite right wing, the loyalists were being destroyed. All started with a frontal clash between the two rival wings of cavalry: the rebels Fonseca and Enríquez charged against Beltrán de la Cueva. Once the spears were broken in the initial clash, the knights drew their swords and continued to fight. The rebels began to push Beltrán´s troop, who lost a banner. In fact, the king’s favorite was hit by several enemy knights who surrounded him, and he was about to be killed or captured. However, Beltrán was an exceptional rider, and despite having his reins cut, losing his spurs and his horse´s bit, he managed to survive. Even more, Beltrán went into personal combat with Fonseca, and “hit him with the tip of the sword, which came between the bevor and the sallet, that mortally wounded him. ” At the end Fonseca lost his helmet, was wounded twice and after losing two other knights of his entourage had to leave the battle, only to die a few days later.

In the meantime, as we said, on the other flank, Santillana managed to control his squadron of heavy cavalry, which says a lot about his leadership abilities at a time when knights used to disperse after the first charge and rarely returned to the field. He crossed the battlefield from north to south, passing through the center, which had been empty of troops of both sides as we shall see, until reaching where Beltrán was, to assist him and saving the day. While Beltrán was still fighting, the rebel Enriquez managed to disperse the royalists jinetes, but on returning to the battlefield, exhausted, he ran into the heavy cavalry squadrons of Beltrán and Santillana who captured him. Thus, Santillana´s maneuver was undoubtedly the most important and decisive tactical action of the whole battle, which is barely narrated (and not clearly) by only one of the two chroniclers.

The struggle over the centre was the most confusing of all. The clash started, we do not know whether spontaneously or planned, when the loyalist squadron under Pedro Velasco was surpassed from his left by the squadron of his cousin Juan Velasco to charge at the vanguard, forming a wedge of heavy cavalry that impacted on the rebel knights of the Archbishop of Toledo, breaking through the other side of the rebel squadron. In the attack, Juan Velasco took an enemy banner, and the Archbishop himself received a spear hit that pierced his left arm from side to side, although the prelate hid his injury and continued the fight. However, Juan Velasco, surprised by his own success, not knowing that behind him was also charging his cousin Pedro, fearing being caught between the troops of the Archbishop and the battle of Stúñiga still in front of him, left the battlefield.

Meanwhile, Pedro Velasco carried on the attack with his larger heavy cavalry squadron following his cousin, pushing the reorganized battle of the Archbishop against the rear, mixing it with Stúñiga´s troops and cornering the rebels against the city of Olmedo. In the attack Velasco took two of the banners of Stúñiga, so he reached the rear of the rebels. With this charge Velasco cleared the troops around the center of the battlefield, which allowed, as we saw, the movement of Santillana to save Beltrán de la Cueva. Meanwhile, the rebel jinetes under Hontiveros and the Count of Ribadeo, taking advantage of the gaps left by the loyalists, charged against the jinetes of Sancho and Luis de Velasco, dispersing them and taking a banner. After that, the rebels continued their ride to sack the camp of the king. The footmen fled when they saw the horsemen coming, so the rebels ransacked the baggage taking a royal flag. However, when Hontiveros returned to the field, with his horsemen tired and dispersed, he was easily captured by Pedro Velasco’s intact heavy cavalry squadron.

Who won?

The end of the battle was somewhat comic, as both the pretender and the monarch fled from the field before knowing the outcome of the battle. Enrique was told by his own chronicler Enriquez del Castillo, who was present at the battle, that he had won. The king then sent the chronicler to Medina del Campo to report the victory and to prepare accommodation for the night for all the army. When Enrique with his troops arrived they were greeted by the cheers of the populace by torchlight.

Thus, the objective of the king had been fulfilled and Medina del Campo had been saved. But who really won? Chroniclers representing each side said both claimed their own forces were the winners as they stayed on the battlefield – in fact, half of the royalists and two-thirds of the rebels had fled. From both reports we may deduce that the rebels lost their wings. The center under the Archbishop was still there, but it was cornered against Olmedo. Because the king’s troops departed for Medina del Campo, Prince Alfonso’s warriors controlled the battlefield in the end, but they were not able to prevent the saving of the village by Enrique. Fonseca was dead, Enríquez and Hontiveros had been captured, and the Archbishop was severely wounded, so it seems that the rebels suffered more than the royalists.

Both sides continued to receive reinforcements, with the loyalists in Medina del Campo growing to 2,000 horses and 4,000 footmen, but in Olmedo the rebels received up to 3,340 horsemen under Pacheco himself. Instead of attacking the king, Pacheco marched south to Segovia, where the gates were opened for the rebels, allowing them to capture the royal treasury. It seemed as if the rebellion might have been successful – however, in another twist of fate, Prince Alfonso died in 1468 (with one chronicler suggesting that he was poisoned by Pacheco himself). His crown was left to his sister, Isabella, and she was asked to take her brother’s place as the champion of the rebels. However, she refused, and went into negotiations with Enrique. Ultimately, he agreed to recognize Isabella as his official heir instead of his daughter Juana, and with the king’s death in 1474, Isabella I would come to the throne, establishing a reign that would see the unification of Spain and its rise into a global power.

Both sides continued to receive reinforcements, with the loyalists in Medina del Campo growing to 2,000 horses and 4,000 footmen, but in Olmedo the rebels received up to 3,340 horsemen under Pacheco himself. Instead of attacking the king, Pacheco marched south to Segovia, where the gates were opened for the rebels, allowing them to capture the royal treasury. It seemed as if the rebellion might have been successful – however, in another twist of fate, Prince Alfonso died in 1468 (with one chronicler suggesting that he was poisoned by Pacheco himself). His crown was left to his sister, Isabella, and she was asked to take her brother’s place as the champion of the rebels. However, she refused, and went into negotiations with Enrique. Ultimately, he agreed to recognize Isabella as his official heir instead of his daughter Juana, and with the king’s death in 1474, Isabella I would come to the throne, establishing a reign that would see the unification of Spain and its rise into a global power.

Javier García de Gabiola lives in Madrid, where he works as a lawyer and historian of military warfare, having published some fifty works in Spanish magazines, as well as writing for Helion and the Autónoma University of Mexico.

This article was first published in Medieval Warfare. Now called, Medieval World: Culture & Conflict, you can get the magazine through the Karwansaray website or by becoming a patron on our Patreon page.

Top Image: Battle scene from the Prayerbook of Alphonso V of Aragon, British Library MS Additional 28962 fol. 78r

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